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What is VGS in endocarditis?

In 2007, the American Heart Association published updated evidence-based guidelines on the recommended use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent viridans group streptococcal (VGS) infective endocarditis (IE) in cardiac patients undergoing invasive procedures.

What is VGS in endocarditis?

In 2007, the American Heart Association published updated evidence-based guidelines on the recommended use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent viridans group streptococcal (VGS) infective endocarditis (IE) in cardiac patients undergoing invasive procedures.

Where is Streptococcus mitis found?

Streptococcus mitis is prevalent in the normal flora of the oropharynx, the female genital tract, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Although it is usually considered to have low virulence and pathogenicity, Streptococcus mitis may cause life-threatening infections, particularly endocarditis.

What is gemella Haemolysans?

Gemella haemolysans is part of the normal flora in the human oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract. 3. Although infections with Gemella species are rare, G. haemolysans can cause severe systemic infections as an opportunistic pathogen.

Why is Streptococcus mitis beneficial?

Streptococcus mitis species was chosen because of its biological characteristics of both beneficial commensal of oral environment and emerging opportunistic pathogen able to promote significant diseases in immunocompromised patients and interfere with oral tissue (17).

Can Strep mitis be a contaminant?

Our results indicate that although S mitis is a frequent contaminant of blood and body fluid cultures, these strains can cause serious pyogenic infection. criteria were designated contaminants.

What is the nutritionally variant of Streptococcus (NVS)?

Although they were previously considered nutritional mutants of viridans streptococcal species, the nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) are currently thought to belong to distinct species of the genus Streptococcus.

How do you inoculate Group A streptococcus?

For most cultures submitted as group A streptococci, those that appear pure on the submitted culture, a 30 ml and a 5 ml Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) should be inoculated. Place the 5 ml THB in a 30Ε C incubator or leave at room temperature for 1-3 days. The 5 ml THB is used for T-agglutination typing of group A streptococci.

How to determine the group antigen of ß-hemolytic streptococci?

The purpose of determining the group antigen of ß-hemolytic streptococci is identify the species or species/group of streptococci as originally described by Rebecca Lancefield. Acid extraction is used to remove the serogroup from the cell. 50 ml culture 50 µl capillary tube m-cresol purple 13 X 100 mm test tube boiling water bath centrifuge

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with Streptococcus bacteremia?

Nutritionally variant streptococcal bacteremia is uncommon, is frequently associated with infective endocarditis, is often detected late in the hospital course because of delayed growth of NVS organisms in blood culture media, and had a 15% mortality rate. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.