What is the subchondral bone?

What is the subchondral bone?

Subchondral bone refers to the bone tissue underlying the calcified cartilage and tidemark (Figure 1), including both subchondral cortical plate and subchondral trabecular bone. Subchondral bone plate is a thin layer of cortical bone lying immediately beneath the calcified cartilage.

Where is the subchondral bone?

“Subchondral bone” is bone that sits underneath cartilage in a joint. Subchondral bone is found in large joints like the knees and hips, as well as in small joints like those of the hands and feet.

What is subchondral bone damage?

Subchondral bone supports overlying articular cartilage and distributes mechanical loads across joint surfaces with a gradual transition in stress and strain. Stiffened and less pliable subchondral bone could transmit increased loads to overlying cartilage, leading to secondary cartilage damage and degeneration [11].

What is the function of subchondral bone?

The function of the subchondral bone is to attenuate forces generated through locomotion, with the compact subchondral bone plate providing firm support and the subchondral trabecular component providing elasticity for shock absorption during joint loading (3).

What is a pannus?

What Is Pannus? Pannus is a type of extra growth in your joints that can cause pain, swelling, and damage to your bones, cartilage, and other tissue. It most often results from rheumatoid arthritis, an inflammatory disease that affects your joints, though other inflammatory diseases are also sometimes to blame.

What causes osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in your joints gradually deteriorates. Cartilage is a firm, slippery tissue that enables nearly frictionless joint motion. Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, bone will rub on bone.

Why is it called a pannus?

The term “pannus” is derived from the Latin for “tablecloth”. Inflammation and exuberant proliferation of the synovium leads to formation of pannus and destruction of cartilage, bone, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Basically, the hypertrophied synovium is called pannus.

What is a pannus made of?

As more cells are produced, the synovium thickens. Microscopic, finger-like projections grow on the normally smooth surface of the synovium. These projections, called villi, make pannus tissue rough and uneven. The thickening synovium requires space and invades the space in between a joint’s bones.