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What is refractory angina?

Refractory angina pectoris (RAP) is defined as the occurrence of frequent angina attacks uncontrolled by optimal drug therapy, significantly limiting the patients’ daily activities, and with the presence of coronary artery disease rendering percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery unsuitable (CABG) (1).

What is refractory angina?

Refractory angina pectoris (RAP) is defined as the occurrence of frequent angina attacks uncontrolled by optimal drug therapy, significantly limiting the patients’ daily activities, and with the presence of coronary artery disease rendering percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery unsuitable (CABG) (1).

How is refractory angina treated?

The following text presents new and emerging treatment options that appear particularly promising to help patients with refractory angina.

  1. FIGURE 1.
  2. REDUCTION OF THE CORONARY SINUS.
  3. FIGURE 2 – A Device to Narrow the Coronary Sinus.
  4. CELL THERAPY.
  5. CARDIAC REHABILITATION.
  6. MENTAL STRESS-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA.
  7. References.

What is refractory chest pain?

What is chronic refractory angina pectoris? Chronic refractory angina pectoris (chest pain) is a sensation of pressure or pain in the chest that is the result of insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle and in which treatment with medication and heart surgery is either insufficient or no longer effective.

What is EECP used for?

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) treatment is an FDA-approved outpatient therapy for chronic stable angina. It uses pressure on the lower limbs to improve blood flow in people with long-term symptoms of heart disease, such as chest pain and pressure.

How common is refractory angina?

It is estimated that as many as 1,000,000 people in the United States have chronic symptomatic coronary artery disease (often referred to as refractory angina) that is recalcitrant to medical therapy and unamenable to conventional revascularization procedures.

What is refractory heart failure?

Refractory heart failure, also known as end stage or advanced heart failure, is a condition in which heart failure symptoms persist despite taking prescribed medications. This includes symptoms while at rest or frequent hospitalization for heart failure symptoms.

How many patients have refractory angina?

Refractory angina may be prevalent in 5% to 10% of stable coronary artery disease patients. Many emerging therapeutics may be suitable and efficacious to improve quality of life in refractory angina.

What is the cost of EECP?

In india usually a center who is providing which matches international standards charge between 80000 Rs – 120000 for 35 sessions of EECP. The overall price can be higher if number of sessions are increased due to any reason.

Who invented EECP therapy?

EECP treatment originated in China where it has been extensively used since the 1960s. In the past 10 years it has been introduced to the United States, where there are currently around 1200 machines in operation. The idea for EECP stemmed from the development of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP).

What does refractory mean in cardiology?

The refractoriness of a cardiac tissue can be defined by the response of that tissue to the introduction of premature stimuli. The effective refractory period (ERP) of a cardiac tissue is the longest interval of the input into a part of the conduction system that fails to propagate through that tissue.

What are refractory symptoms?

A refractory symptom is one that cannot be adequately controlled despite aggressive efforts to identify a tolerable therapy that does not compromise consciousness (Cherny 1994). A refractory symptom may be subjective and, at times, nonspecific.

What are the side effects of EECP treatment?

EECP increases blood flow to the heart, while simultaneously stimulating the opening and formation of collaterals (small branches of blood vessels around the heart) to create a natural bypass around narrowed or blocked arteries. Common side effects with EECP: Skin bruising/abrasion. Back and leg pain*

What is the ICD 9 code for angina pectoris?

Short description: Angina pectoris NEC/NOS. ICD-9-CM 413.9 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis on a reimbursement claim, however, 413.9 should only be used for claims with a date of service on or before September 30, 2015.

Does intramyocardial injection of autologous CD34+ cells improve exercise tolerance in refractory angina?

The primary findings of this study are that intramyocardial injection of autologous CD34+ cells was associated with a significant decrease in angina frequency and a significant improvement in exercise tolerance in patients with optimally managed but refractory angina.

What is the ICD-9 code for diagnosis?

ICD-9-CM 413.9 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis on a reimbursement claim, however, 413.9 should only be used for claims with a date of service on or before September 30, 2015.

How often does angina occur in patients with CD34+ cells?

At 6 months, the frequency of angina was significantly lower in patients treated with the low dose of CD34+ cells than in the control group (6.8±1.1 versus 10.9±1.2 episodes per week, P=0.020) (Figure 2).