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What is a homeobox transcription factor?

What is a homeobox transcription factor?

Homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. These family members are characterized by a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif known as the homeodomain (encoded by the 180 bp homeobox sequence element).

How is transcription factor defined?

Transcription factors are proteins involved in the process of converting, or transcribing, DNA into RNA. Transcription factors include a wide number of proteins, excluding RNA polymerase, that initiate and regulate the transcription of genes.

What are the three types of transcription factor?

Many transcription factors are either tumor suppressors or oncogenes, and, thus, mutations or aberrant regulation of them is associated with cancer. Three groups of transcription factors are known to be important in human cancer: (1) the NF-kappaB and AP-1 families, (2) the STAT family and (3) the steroid receptors.

What is a homeobox and what is its significance?

A homeobox is a DNA sequence, around 180 base pairs long, found within genes that are involved in the regulation of patterns of anatomical development (morphogenesis) in animals, fungi, plants, and numerous single cell eukaryotes.

How many transcription factors are there?

Introduction. Approximately 1,500 transcription factors (TFs) are encoded in the mammalian genome1 and constitute the second largest gene family, with the immunoglobulin superfamily being the largest.

What is the function of homeobox proteins?

Homeodomain proteins regulate gene expression and cell differentiation during early embryonic development, thus mutations in homeobox genes can cause developmental disorders.

What is the role of Homeoprotein transcription factors in the human family?

Other proteins in the family, such as NANOG are involved in maintaining pluripotency. Homeobox genes are critical in the establishment of body axes during embryogenesis. Homeoprotein transcription factors typically switch on cascades of other genes. The homeodomain binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner.

Which homeobox transcription factor promotes integrin alpha5beta1 expression and function during angiogenesis?

^ Boudreau NJ, Varner JA (February 2004). “The homeobox transcription factor Hox D3 promotes integrin alpha5beta1 expression and function during angiogenesis”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (6): 4862–8. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M305190200.

What is the origin of homeobox genes?

The existence of homeobox genes were first discovered in Drosophila, where mutations in homeobox genes caused the radical alterations known as ” homeotic transformations”. One of the most famous such mutation is antennapedia, in which legs grow from the head of a fly instead of the expected antennae.