What is a cellular substrate?

What is a cellular substrate?

Cell substrate refers to the cells that are used to produce the desired biotechnological/biological products. Cell substrates may be microbial cells (e.g. yeast) or cells derived from various animal sources.

What material is used for bioprinting?

A large variety of polymers are under research for the use in bioprinting technology. Natural polymers, including collagen [20], gelatin [21], alginate [22], and hyaluronic acid (HA) [23], and synthetic polymers, such as PVA [24] and polyethylene glycol (PEG), are commonly used in bioinks for 3D printing.

What cells are used in bioprinting?

Laser bioprinting was used to fabricate a skin tissue construct, by printing functional layers of MSCs, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts (5, 38, 67).

How is Bioink used for bioprinting?

During the bioprinting process, a solution of a biomaterial or a mixture of several biomaterials in the hydrogel form, usually encapsulating the desired cell types, termed the bioink, is used for creating tissue constructs.

What is cell culture substrate?

surface on which a cell or organism grows or is attached such as the use of microcarriers in cell culture; most eukaryotic cell types require attachment to a substrate for survival; also called extracellular matrices; in the body they are composed mainly of proteins and provide chemical cues that affect or guide the …

How do cells attach to substrates?

Cells normally attach to substrates via surface receptors on the cells, which interact with proteins adsorbed onto the surface of the substrate (Hubbell, 1995b). These proteins are adsorbed from either the surrounding serum (culture medium or biological fluid), or secreted by the cells themselves (Saltzman, 1997).

What are the different types of bioprinting?

Bioprinting technologies are mainly divided into three categories, inkjet-based bioprinting, pressure-assisted bioprinting and laser-assisted bioprinting, based on their underlying printing principles. These various printing technologies have their advantages and limitations.

What is inkjet-based bioprinting?

Inkjet. Inkjet-based bioprinting is a non-contact printing technique in which droplets of dilute solutions are dispensed, driven by thermal, piezoelectric, or microvalve processes.

What is cell printing?

Bioprinting is an additive manufacturing process similar to 3D printing – it uses a digital file as a blueprint to print an object layer by layer. But unlike 3D printing, bioprinters print with cells and biomaterials, creating organ-like structures that let living cells multiply.

What is bioink made from?

While a wide variety of materials are used for bioinks, the most popular materials include gelatin methacrylol (GelMA), collagen, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), Pluronic®, alginate, and decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM)-based materials (Table 1).