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What causes Pneumatosis Cystoides intestinalis?

The exact etiology of the disease is still unknown. PCI may appear in association with ileal surgery[12], colonoscopies[5], chronic pulmonary disease[13], connective tissue disorders[14] and ingestion of sorbitol[15] or lactulose[16]. Various theories have been proposed: mechanical, bacterial and pulmonary.

What causes Pneumatosis Cystoides intestinalis?

The exact etiology of the disease is still unknown. PCI may appear in association with ileal surgery[12], colonoscopies[5], chronic pulmonary disease[13], connective tissue disorders[14] and ingestion of sorbitol[15] or lactulose[16]. Various theories have been proposed: mechanical, bacterial and pulmonary.

What is Pneumatosis Cystoides intestinalis?

Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is a radiopathological entity characterized by the presence of multiple gas-filled cysts in the submucosa and/or gastrointestinal subserosa of the small intestine.

Is pneumatosis intestinalis fatal?

Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) may be associated with life-threatening emergencies. It is difficult to completely rule out the fatal conditions associated with PI without surgery. Very elderly patients are at high risk for a fatal outcome if surgery is delayed.

What are the symptoms of pneumatosis intestinalis?

Symptoms in primary pneumatosis intestinalis, when present, usually include diarrhea, abdominal pain, abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and mucus in stools. Hematochezia and constipation have also been described.

How is pneumatosis intestinalis treated?

Antibiotics have been investigated as a mainstay treatment for PI. One regimen, which has proven to have some success, is metronidazole 500 mg per os (PO) three times daily (TID) for up to 3 months. It is theorized that antibiotics reduce the amount of gas produced by bacteria and alleviate obstructive symptoms.

Is pneumatosis intestinalis an infection?

Primary pneumatosis intestinalis (15% of cases) is a benign idiopathic condition in which multiple thin-walled cysts develop in the submucosa or subserosa of the colon. Usually, this form has no associated symptoms, and the cysts may be found incidentally through radiography or endoscopy.

How common is pneumatosis intestinalis?

Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) is characterized by gas-filled cysts in the intestinal submucosa and subserosa. It is a rare disease with reported incidence of 0.03% and can occur in any age group [1].

Does pneumatosis mean perforation?

Radiographs are sufficient for diagnosis of pneumatosis, although additional studies, such as CT scans, ultrasonograms, or water-soluble enema studies, may be considered to delineate pneumatosis or the site of perforation.

Is pneumatosis an emergency?

Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) and pneumoperitoneum are commonly recognized as severe signs of gastrointestinal diseases that require emergency surgery.

How is Pneumatosis treated?

What is PCI (pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis)?

Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) is a rare condition that may be associated with a variety of diseases. The presenting clinical picture may be very heterogeneous and represent a challenge for the clinician. In the present paper we describe both a common and an uncommon clinical presentation of PCI and review the pertaining literature.

What is the pathophysiology of pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis?

Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is a radiopathological entity characterized by the presence of multiple gas-filled cysts in the submucosa and/or gastrointestinal subserosa of the small intestine.

What is pneumoperitoneum?

Pneumoperitoneum refers to the presence of intraperitoneal free gas outside the viscera. A perforation of a hollow viscus is the main cause and usually indicates a surgical emergency. However, some case of pneumoperitoneum can be completely asymptomatic and secondary to benign conditions that do not …

What are the possible complications of intestinal pneumatosis of the small intestine?

DISCUSSION. The intestinal pneumatosis may experience various complications, in particular, Goel et al[ 29] described the complications of pneumatosis of the small intestine which may be intestinal or extra-intestinal. Intestinal complications are obstruction caused by the cysts (i.e., fecal impaction) and perforation from stercoral ulceration.