What are the anthracycline drugs?

What are the anthracycline drugs?

Anthracycline chemotherapy medicines are:

  • Adriamycin (chemical name: doxorubicin)
  • Ellence (chemical name: epirubicin)
  • Doxil (chemical name: doxorubicin)
  • daunorubicin (brand names: Cerubidine, DaunoXome)
  • mitoxantrone (brand name: Novantrone)

What are the side effects of anthracyclines?

Adverse Effects

  • Allergic reactions (anaphylaxis)
  • Severe cough.
  • Photosensitivity.
  • Skin and nail hyperpigmentation.
  • Hoarseness of voice.
  • Flushing of the face.
  • Fatigue.
  • Joint pain.

What cancers do anthracyclines treat?

Anthracyclines are widely used chemotherapy drugs derived from certain types of Streptomyces bacteria. Anthracycline drugs are used to treat many types of cancer, including leukemias, lymphomas, and cancers of the breast, stomach, uterus, ovary, and lung, among others.

What are cardiotoxic drugs?

Drug-induced cardiotoxicity, commonly in the form of cardiac muscle dysfunction that may progress to heart failure, represents a major adverse effect of some common traditional antineoplastic agents, e.g., anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide, 5 fluorouracil, taxanes, as well as newer agents such as biological monoclonal …

Is paclitaxel an anthracycline?

In particular, the standard in many practices is now the combination of an anthracycline, such as Adriamycin (doxorubicin); a taxane, such as Taxol (paclitaxel) or Taxotere (docetaxel); and other drugs.

Is etoposide an anthracycline?

Chemotherapy drugs that can cause irreversible toxicity include anthracyclines (daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin); alkylating agents (busulfan, carboplatin, carmustine, chlormethine, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, mitomycin); taxanes (docetaxel, cabazitaxel, paclitaxel); topoisomerase inhibitors ( …

What do anthracyclines do?

Anthracycline: A member of a family of chemotherapy drugs that are also antibiotics. The anthracyclines act to prevent cell division by disrupting the structure of the DNA and terminate its function.

Is gemcitabine an anthracycline?

Anthracyclines are among the most active drugs in breast cancer. Gemcitabine is a novel agent that has also shown good antitumor activity in advanced breast cancer. This compound has a favorable toxicity profile, no apparent multidrug resistance, and retains its activity in anthracycline-pretreated patients.

Is bleomycin an anthracycline?

Antitumor antibiotics are amongst the most important of the cancer chemotherapeutic agents, which include members of the anthracycline, bleomycin, actinomycin, mitomycin and aureolic acid families.

Is paclitaxel cardiotoxic?

Paclitaxel has cardiotoxic effects. Careful monitoring of cardiac function during and after paclitaxel infusion is required in patients with high-risk features.

Why do anthracyclines cause cardiotoxicity?

Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is due in large part to the generation of free radicals from doxorubicin through mitochondrial redox cycling of doxorubicin in the cardiomyocyte, which ultimately results in left ventricular dysfunction, and in the most severe cases, congestive heart failure.

What are anthracyclines and taxanes?

Background: Anthracyclines and taxanes are chemotherapeutic agents widely used in a sequential regimen in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment of early breast cancer to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Standard practice is to administer anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by a taxane.

What is anthracyclines?

Anthracyclines is a class of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy that are extracted from Streptomyces bacterium. These compounds are used to treat many cancers, including leukemias, lymphomas, breast, stomach, uterine, ovarian, bladder cancer, and lung cancers.

What percentage of cancer patients are treated with anthracyclines?

Although it has been 50 years from the discovery of anthracyclines, and despite recent advances in the development of targeted therapies for cancers, around 32% of breast cancer patients, 57%-70% of elderly lymphoma patients and 50–60% of childhood cancer patients are treated with anthracyclines.

What is the pathophysiology of anthracycline toxicity?

Anthracycline cardiotoxicity: an update on mechanisms, monitoring and prevention Anthracycline chemotherapy causes dose-related cardiomyocyte injury and death leading to left ventricular dysfunction. Clinical heart failure may ensue in up to 5% of high-risk patients.

What are the adverse effects of anthracyclines in the treatment of neutropenia?

Their main adverse effect is cardiotoxicity, which considerably limits their usefulness. Use of anthracyclines has also been shown to be significantly associated with cycle 1 severe or febrile neutropenia.